Language & Culture

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Due to Covid-19 our language classes have been moved online. They are being delievered through Facebook Live streams that can be found here.

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Additional Content - Ron Tremblay, Wolastoqewi Grand Chief


Wolastoq Flag

This symbol represents all Wolastoqewiyik, it does not belong to one person or a group of people, it represents all Wolastoqewiyik.

This image illustrates two Wolastoqewi canoeists following our totem Kiwhos (muskrat). This image was drawn in 1888 by a Passamaquoddy in Maine near the Canadian and American border.

It is said, we were once known as Kiwhosuwi-skicinuwok although through time we transformed our name to Wolastoqewiyik, “People of the Beautiful and Bountiful River”.

Not long ago Wolastoq Grand Council reintroduced this image onto a flag to represent all Wolastoqewiyik. Kiwhos (muskrat) is a significant part of our creation story as well a provider of food, tools and fur. Also, Kiwhos (muskrat) guides us to our most significant medicine Kiwhosuwasq (muskrat root). Our Medicine People made and wore Muskrat Medicine Pouches for great healing powers.

Several years ago, Grand Chief Ulsonuwit Sqot (Harry LaPorte) and the Grandmothers asked me to reconstruct this image and put color that represents our connection to Grandfather Sun, Water, Mother Earth and our Ancestors.

So I held ceremony for several weeks asking our Ancestors to give me direction for how to fulfil their request, hence this is the vision that was gifted to me.

This is the description of the colors and image:

  • Bottom red line symbolizes our Ancestors who are deeply rooted in our homeland Wolastokuk, to remind us where we come from and who we are.
  • Green symbolizes all vegetation that grows immensely throughout our Turtle Island.
  • Blue symbolizes all Water Life - Rivers, Brooks, Streams, Lakes, Bogs and Oceans
  • Red Muskrat our Tutem (totem) symbolizes our guide to medicine Kiwhosuwasq and reminds us of our responsibility to protect water and all creatures who dwell within.
  • Red female and male canoeists represent Wolastoqewiyik (People of the Beautiful and Bountiful River).

  • Yellow symbolizes Grandfather Sun which gives us light and helps all vegetation and life to grow. Also, Grandfather Sun reminds us of our connection to Wabanaki Confederacy (People of the First Light - Dawn).


A Reminder:

This clearly demonstrates the Intellect and Wisdom of our Wolastoqewi-Elders in how They regarded our oral traditional teachings that were passed down from generation-to-generation.
In one of Mathilda Sappier’s recordings in the 1950’s, these were Her opening words:
“Kat yut atkuhkakon, qin-te nit leyupon nita” – this is not a story, this really happened!



Mahtoqehsuwi-Motewolon-– Rabbit with super-natural powers smoking a Sacred Pipe. It was told by our Old Ones that Rabbit had powers to shape shift into many things in nature to bring messages of good will and healing through ceremony. This image has been engraved and drawn onto many items throughout Wolastoqey, Penobscot and Passamaquoddy lifetime. Let’s revive this medicine and pass it forward to all our relatives!

Nit Leyic - Nit Leyic - Nit Leyic…Let It Be So - Let It Be So - Let It Be So!



Wolastoq pomehloqe

Wolastoq is flowing

Ahaci-te pomiku

flowing and growing

Wolastoq olmehloqe

Wolastoq is flowing

Supeq elomiya

flowing to the sea

Nikuwoss Pomiphin

Mother carry me

Wasis oc nil askomiw

a child I will always be

Nikuwoss pomiphin

Mother Carry me

Wasis oc nil askomiw

a child I will always be

Gwen Bear Orechia ~ Sagatay



Lesson #1 - Come Eat


  • Nacihp – come eat
  • Ntus nacihp – come eat my daughter
  • Nqoss nacihp – come eat my son
  • Nqenoss nacihp – come eat grandchild (female or male)


Lesson #2 - Eating


  • Nacihpu – She/he goes (comes) to eat
  • Nuhkomoss nacihpu – my grandmother is going (coming) to eat
  • Nuhkomoss nacihpu nemaht – my grandmother is going (coming) to eat at my house
  • Nuhkomoss - my grandmother
  • Nemaht – at my house


Lesson #3 - Eating


  • Nacihpuwok – they are going (coming) to eat (2 people)
  • Nmuhsumsok nacihpuwok – my grandfathers are going (coming) to eat (2 people)
  • Nmuhsumsok nacihpuwok kikuwak – my grandfathers are going (coming) to eat (2 people) at your house
  • Nmuhsumsok nacihpuwok – my grandfathers
  • Kikuwak – at your house


Lesson #4 - Eating


  • Nacihpultuwok – they are going (coming) to eat (3 or more people)
  • Nuhsimisok nacihpultuwok – my younger siblings are going (coming) to eat (3 or more people)
  • Nuhsimisok nacihpultuwok nikonuk – my younger siblings are going (coming) to eat (3 or more people) at our house
  • Nuhsimisok - my younger siblings
  • Nikonuk – at our house




  • Kotuwi-psan – it is going to snow
  • Totoli-psan – it is snowing
  • Kisi-psan – it snowed
  • Psan - it snows
  • Kotuwi - be going to ..., be about to
  • Totoli - indicates progressive or ongoing action
  • Kisi - shows completed past action
  • Wast – fallen snow




  • Kci-Niwesq - Great Mystery-Feminine
  • Kci-Montu - Great Mystery-Masculine
  • Kci-Nuhkomossok - Great Grandmothers
  • Kci-Nmuhsumsok - Great Grandfathers
  • Keluwoskap - Bearer of Great Truth-the Good Man

When I rise each morning in ceremony I always address Creation in my Traditional name, then give gratitude to Kci-Niwesq, Kci-Montu, Kci-Nuhkomossok, Kci-Nmuhsumsok and Keluwoskap for all Life. I then address in gratefulness the core of Mother Earth all the way to Her surface and all in between. On Mother Earth’s surface, I give immense appreciation for every living entity; Waterways; Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Brooks, Streams and Marshes, all forms of Animals, 4 legged, Winged, Swimmers and Crawlers, Trees - Vegetation; Food & Medicine, Mountains, Hills, Rocks, Valley’s. I lookup to Father Sky and thank Him for orchestrating the balance above us in coordination with our Sister and Brother Stars and our Great Grandfather Sun & Great Grandmother Moon.

I then face Cipenok – Eastern, where our Ancestors dwell in that direction to thank Them for Their Teachings and Guidance, I then turn to Sawonehsonuk – South, to give thanks for the Teachings and Guidance from our Ancestors who reside there. The next direction I face is Skiyahsonuk – West, where I grant thankfulness for the Teachings and Guidance from our Ancestors who inhabit there. I then turn to the direction Lahtoqehsonuk – North, where Kcicituwinuwok (the Wise ones) live, I ask Them for Their Wisdom to Guide so I will make Healthy and Wise decisions today. And I also ask Wapsq (White Bear) and Wapeyit Malsom (White Wolf) to come and Heal our people who are sick and have lost their way. Lastly, I then turn inward and thank my Spirit for the life it gives me and allows me to live another day with my Partner, Children, Grandchildren, Sisters, Brothers, Nieces, Nephews, ex-tended Family & Friends.


Mam-ote siqoniw - It's finally spring time!


Wolokiskot komac yut pemkiskahk - It is a very nice day today


Nehe, wicuhkemtultine naka nit-te ktiyalokittiyan kikuwak! – Okay, let’s help one another and stay right there at your home!




  • Waponahkew – (Wabanaki) Person of the First Light/Dawn
  • Waponahkiyik - (Wabanaki) People of the First Light/Dawn
  • Waponahkik – Homeland of the People of the First Light/Dawn


Milk and Coffee Taste


  • Wolihpuksu – It tastes good (animate)
  • Wolihpuksu molaqs – Milk tastes good (animate – alive, or having life)
  • Wolihpukot – It tastes good (inanimate)
  • Wolihpukot kahpe – Coffee tastes good (inanimate – lifeless)


Apples Taste Good


  • Wolihpuksu – It tastes good (animate food)
  • Wolihpuksu cikon – The apple tastes good (animate food – alive, or having life)
  • Wolihpuksultuwok – They tastes good
  • Wolihpuksultuwok cikoniyik – The apples taste good


Made Coffee


Nkisihtun kahpe sepay ciw nilun Nisuwiyeq Joan, eci-wolapuwahtek – i made coffee for my partner Joan and I, it tasted very good!

  • Nkisihtun – I made
  • Kahpe – coffee
  • Sepay – this morning
  • Ciw – for
  • Nisuwiyeq – my partner
  • Eci – very, very much
  • Wolapuwahtek – it is good-tasting; hot liquid


Cooking Ware


  • Sisolapsqehtikon wot – this is a Frying pan (Animate)
  • Katkuhk wot – this is a Cooking pot (Animate)
  • Skawsis wot – this is a Baking pan (Animate)
  • Wewilossit wot – this is a Whistling teakettle (Animate)




  • Waltiyik yuht – these are Dishes (Animate)
  • Tuwapuwakon wot – this is a Cup (Animate)
  • Tuwossomut wot – this is a Drinking glass (Animate)
  • Walicwoqsit wot – this is a Bowl (Animate)
  • Walotehsis wot – this is a little Plate (Animate)
  • Walot wot – this is a Plate (Animate)
  • Nit-te psiw – that is it!




  • Mihqotanis yut – this is a table knife (small)
  • Mihqotan yut – this is a knife
  • Mitsutiyey yut – this is a fork
  • Emqansis wot – this is a teaspoon (Animate)
  • Emqan wot – this is a tablespoon (Animate)
  • Animate – alive or having life


Use Indigenous Medicine


Qey, ktahcuwi kilun mecimi-te wehkanen Skicinuweyal ‘Pisunol; Kakskus, Welimahaskil, ‘Tomawey naka Sehc – We must always use our Indigenous Medicines; Cedar, Sweetgrass, Tobacco and Sage.

  • Qey - greetings
  • Ktahcuwi – we must
  • Kilun – we, us
  • Mecimi-te – always
  • Wehkanen – use
  • Skicinuweyal – Indigenous items, objects
  • ‘Pisunol – medicines
  • Kakskus – cedar
  • Welimahaskil – sweeatgrass
  • ‘Tomawey – tobacco
  • Naka - and
  • Sehc -sage


Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow


  • Wolaku – yesterday
  • Eci-wolokisahk wolaku – it was a fine weather yesterday
  • Pemkiskahk - today
  • Komac mocokiskot pemkiskahk – it’s a very bad day (weather) today
  • Sepawonu or Sepawonuk – tomorrow
  • Kotuwolan sepawonuk – it’s going to rain tomorrow




  • Posonut - basket
  • Posonutiyil - baskets
  • Posonut yut – this is a basket
  • Posonutiyil yuhtol – these are baskets
  • Victor Bear yut kisihtaq posonut – Victor Bear made this basket
  • Victor Bear yuhtol kisihtaqil posonutiyil - Victor Bear made these baskets
  • Yut – this
  • Yuhtol – these
  • Kisihtaq – made it (inanimate)
  • Kisihtaqil – made them (inanimate)


Feather in/out of Basket


  • Wiphun – feather (animate)
  • Posonut – basket (inanimate)
  • Nkoti-puna wiphun lamiw posonutek – I am going to put a feather in the basket
  • Nkisis-puna wiphun lamiw posonutek – I have put a feather in the basket
  • Nkoti-nutehla wiphun posonutek – I am taking out the feather from the basket
  • Nkoti – I am going to…
  • Puna – put or place
  • Nutehla – take out
  • Lamiw – inside
  • Posonutek – in or on the basket (locator/locative; nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, expressing location)


Feathers 2


  • Cihplakoney wiphun – Eagle feathers
  • Tihtokolwey wiphun – Owl feather
  • Kahkakuhswey wiphun – Crow feather
  • Nemwey wiphun – Turkey feather
  • Tihtiyaswey wiphun – Blue Jay feather
  • Kuwhaswey wiphun – Hawk feather


Apple in/out of Basket


  • Cikon – apple
  • Posonut – basket
  • Nkoti-puna cikon lamiw posonutek – I am going to put an apple in the basket
  • Nkisis-puna cikon lamiw posonutek – I have put an apple in the basket
  • Nkoti-nutehla cikon posonutek – I am taking out the apple from the basket
  • Nkoti – I am going to…
  • Puna – put or place
  • Lamiw – inside
  • Posonutek – in or on the basket (locator/locative; nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, expressing location)




  • Nitapesq – my female friend (Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Nitapesq liwisu Alma – my female friends name is Alma (Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Nitapesq wiku Sitansisk – my female friends lives in St. Mary’s (Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Nitap – my friend (Indigenous Man)
  • Nitap liwisu Chuck – my male friends name is Chuck
  • Nitap wiku Welamukotuk – my male friend lives in Oromocto


Friends 2


  • Ntutemisq – my female friend (Non-Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Ntutemisq liwisu Katalin – my female friends name is Katalin (Non-Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Ntutemisq wiku Welamukotuk – my female friend lives in Oromocto (Non-Indigenous Woman - usually said by a man)
  • Ntutem– my friend (Non-Indigenous Man)
  • Ntutem liwisu Derek – my male friends name is Derek
  • Ntutem wiku Harvey – my male friend lives in Harvey




  • Apacituwiyahtuwok ankuwiposehehsuwok – Robins have flown back


Stay Inside & Take Care


  • Qey, nit-te ktihin lamikuwam naka kulankeyasin – You stay right inside and take care of yourself!
  • Qey - Greetings
  • Nit-te – right away
  • Ktihin – stay right there
  • Lamikuwam – inside a house, indoors
  • Naka – and
  • Kulankeyasin – take good care of yourself


Balance in Creation


  • Nipawset – Espotewset (Moon – Sun)
  • Skitkomiq – Musikisq (Earth – Sky)
  • Samaqan – Sqot (Water – Fire)
  • Spotew – Nipayiw (Day – Night)
  • Niponiw – Puniw (Summer – Winter)
  • Siqoniw – Toqakuwiw (Spring – Fall)
  • Piskiyak – Possahtuwehk (Dark – Light)


Get Up / Rise


  • Nkoti-nomocess – I’m going to get up/rise (arises or get up from sitting or prone position)
  • Ntotoli-nomocess – I and getting up; rising
  • Nkisi-nomocess – I got up; I rose
  • Nkoti – I’m going to…
  • Ntotoli – I am…(presently)
  • Nkisi – I did…
  • Nomocess – get up/rise


Wake Up / Woke Up


  • Nkisi spasi-tuhki – I woke up early this morning
  • Kisi spasi-tuhkiye nqoss – My son woke up early this morning
  • Kisi metsi-tuhkiye ntus – My daughter woke up late this morning
  • Nkisi – I did…
  • Spasi-tuhki – woke up in the morning (early)
  • Kisi – she/he did…
  • Spasi-tuhkiye – She/he woke up in the morning (early)
  • Metsi-tuhkiye – woke up late
  • Tuhkiye – she/he woke up
  • Nqoss – my son
  • Ntus – my daughter


Son, Daughter, Wake Up & Get Up


  • Ntus, coke tuhki – my daughter, wake-up now!
  • Nqoss, coke tuhki – my son, wake-up now!
  • Ntus, coke tuhki naka nomocess – my daughter, wake-up and get up now!
  • Nqoss, coke tuhki naka nomocess – my son, wakeup now and get up now!


I Miss... (Part 1)


  • Nkilumak ekehkimucik – I miss the students
  • Nkiluma nutokehkikemit – I miss my teacher
  • Nkilumak nutokehkikemulticik – I miss my teachers


I Miss... (Part 2)


  • Nkilumak nuci-wicuhkekemicik – Teacher Assistants/helpers
  • Nkiluma ankuwoluhkat – I miss the administrative assistant
  • Nkiluma nihkanatpat – I miss the principal


All Life Is Very Sacred


  • Komac Kcitpot Psi-Pomawsuwakon – All Life is Very Sacred


Thank You Moon & Sun


  • Komac-woliwon Nuhkomossuwit Nipawset elomikomuhsiyan naka Muhsumsuwit Espotewsst ‘ciw sahki-ewepiyayan eci-wolinaqsultiyeq – Thank You very much Grandmother Moon for setting and Grandfather Sun for rising You both look so beautiful.


Busy As A Beaver


  • Nwinpas ansa Qapit – I’m as busy as a beaver!
  • Nwinpas – I’m busy
  • Ansa – like
  • Qapit - Beaver


How Keluwoskap Created People


  • Keluwoskap – means the Bearer of Great Truth (the Good Man)
  • Wabanaki – in Wolastoq is Waponahkiyik (People of the Dawn)
  • Sinew – a piece of tough fibrous tissue uniting muscle to bone or bone to bone; a tendon or ligament.

Educational Worksheet:

Download here


Wen Nemiyot? – (who do you see?)


Nomiyak Muwin, Otuhk, Mus, Kahkakuhs, Qaqsoss, Polam, Coqols, Kiwonik, Tihtokol, Espons, Matuwehs, Posu, Tuhkis, Mihku, Mahtoqehs, Malsom, Mociyehs naka Cihpolakon
(I see bear, deer, moose, crow, fox, salmon, frog, otter, owl, raccoon, porcupine, cougar, mouse, squirrel, rabbit, wolf, partridge and eagle)


Psiw-te Samaqanol Kcitpotul – All Waterways are Sacred


  • Sip – River
  • Sipol – Rivers
  • Sipuhsis – Brook/Stream
  • Sipuhsisol – Brooks/Streams
  • Qospem – Lake
  • Qospemol – Lakes
  • Walcoq – Swamp, Bog, Wetland
  • Walcoqul – Swamps, Bogs, Wetlands
  • Supeq – Sea, Ocean, Salt Water
  • Supekul - Seas, Oceans, Salt Waters


Thank You Mother Earth


  • Komac Koselomol Ewikuwossit Skitkomiq, Kci-woliwon ‘ciw Kpomawsuwakon! – I Love You Greatly Mother Earth, Great Thanks for Your life!




  • Espotewset – One who walks during the daytime




  • Nipawset – One who walks during the night time




  • Possesomak - Posse refers to shinning everywhere




  • Musikisq – “Musi” refers to clear or clearing “Kisq” means day


Keluwoskap and the Water Monster

Educational Worksheet:

Download here


Animal Song


In my song I am asking the animals – Bear, Whale, Wolf and Eagle to come help me, teach me, heal me and I love you all.

Muwin Muwin wicuhkemin – Bear Bear help me
Muwin Muwin kehkimin – Bear Bear teach me
Muwin Muwin kikihin – Bear Bear Heal me
Muwin Muwin koselomol – Bear Bear I love you

Putep Putep wicuhkemin – Whale Whale help me
Putep Putep kehkimin – Whale Whale teach me
Putep Putep kikihin – Whale Whale Heal me
Putep Putep koselomol – Whale Whale I love you

Malsom Malsom wicuhkemin – Wolf Wolf help me
Malsom Malsom kehkimin – Wolf Wolf teach me
Malsom Malsom kikihin – Wolf Wolf Heal me
Malson Malsom koselomol – Wolf Wolf I love you

Cihpolakon Cihpolakon wicuhkemin – Eagle Eagle help me
Cihpolakon Cihpolakon kehkimin – Eagle Eagle Eagle teach me
Cihpolakon Cihpolakon kikihin – Eagle Eagle Heal me
Cihpolakon Cihpolakon koselomol – Eagle Eagle I love you


I have to go shopping


  • Ntahcuwi naci-utenehk - I have to go shopping
  • Ntahcuwi – I must, have to
  • Naci – going to a location
  • Utenehk – shop


My father has to go shopping


  • Nmihtaqs ‘tahcuwi naci-utenehke - my father has to go shopping
  • Nmihtaqs - my father
  • ‘Tahcuwi – She/he must, have to
  • Naci – going to a location
  • Utenehke – she/he goes shopping


My mother has to go shopping


  • Nikuwoss ‘tahcuwi naci-utenehke – my mother has to go shopping
  • Nikuwoss - my mother
  • ‘Tahcuwi – She/he must, have to
  • Naci – going to a location
  • Utenehke – she/he goes shopping



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E2V 2J2

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